Skip to main content
Identifier: R-MC 117

Lionel Tiger Papers


  • 1958-2011

Scope and Content Note

The Lionel Tiger Papers are organized into eight series and consist of twenty cubic feet of material created and collected by Tiger. The collection is housed in twenty cartons and one card file box. The collection spans the years 1958 to 2011. The bulk of the material falls between the 1970s and 1990s during the height of Tiger's professional career.

The first series, Biographical and Personal Files, is divided into three subseries: Biographical Sketches, Curriculum Vitae, and Calendars and Datebooks. The material dates from 1969 to 2010 and the bulk of the material is from the 1980s and 1990s. Biographical and Personal Files contain biographical sketches written about Tiger for various press purposes, curriculum vitae spanning four decades, and Tiger's personal and professional calendars and datebooks.

Correspondence Files contains Tiger's correspondence with colleagues in the field of anthropology from the 1950s to the 2000s. This is the largest series in the collection and spans nine manuscript boxes. Subject matter is not limited to any particular subject, but topics include requests for reprints of articles, general correspondence between colleagues and friends, current events, and projects.

Writings and Manuscript Files contains six subseries and all material relates to Tiger's published works. The subseries are further divided by the type of written work. The subseries, Education Related Writings, contains material that Tiger produced as a student at both the London School of Economics and McGill University. The folders contain copies of Tiger's thesis and Tiger's typed interviews and field notes from his time studying abroad in Ghana. The subseries, Articles and Short Manuscripts, contains published works and drafts. Additionally, more publishing related documents are located in the Publication Agreements and Royalty Statements subseries. The Notes subseries consists of Tiger's notes that range from short paragraph vignettes to sources for research with his own opinions and notations. This is divided into two further subseries of Typed and Handwritten Notes. The Publication Agreements and Royalty Statements subseries contains contracts and royalty statements from publication companies. The Other projects subseries contains three subseries; Man and Beast Revisited, Book Reviews Written by Tiger, and China's Food. Man and Beast Revisited houses all material related to the symposium and publication that Tiger co-organized with Michael Robinson, Director of National Zoo. This includes correspondence, contracts, and drafts of participating the authors as well as transcripts of the events at the symposium. Tiger was also responsible for reviewing many books authored by his peers during his professional career, these are found in the Reviews by Tiger subseries. China's Food contains journals of his journey with his son and his photographer, Reinhart Wolf.

Teaching Files is separated into three subseries, University of British Columbia, Rutgers University, and Miscellaneous. The University of British Columbia and Rutgers University subseries primarily contain reading lists, syllabi, and exam questions. The Miscellaneous subseries contains Tiger's summer study binder.

Media and Press Files is organized into three subseries, Speaking Engagements and Events, Interviews, and Press. The Speaking Engagements and Events subseries holds materials collected throughout Tiger's years of attending symposia, meetings, conferences, and workshops. These materials include brochures, itineraries, and event programs. Interviews includes transcripts of interviews and television and radio appearances Tiger participated in. The Press subseries mostly contains articles written about Tiger.

Tiger contributed and devoted his time to many organizations and groups and held multiple renowned positions. Professional Affiliations and Organizations Files is devoted to two particular organizations he was affiliated with, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and PEN American Center.

Outside of teaching, events, and involvement in professional groups, Tiger also acted as a consultant to the U.S. Government and as an expert witness in various criminal trials. Materials related to these activities are contained in Consultation Files. Tiger participated in the Presidential Commission on the Assignment of Women in the Armed Forces in the early 1990s and retained many of the manuscripts from that event. Additionally, Tiger acted as a consultant for the Department of Defense regarding a variety of topics including al Qaeda, global security, and global terrorism. Besides government consulting, Tiger took on the role of expert witness in two high profile cases of Laura Troiani and John Meier, both on trial for murder.

Ephemera Files contains films from Tiger's media appearances and other films collected throughout the years. In addition, Ephemera contains photographs of Tiger, business cards, travel material, and other small paper items.


20 Cubic Feet (20 cartons, 1 index card file box)

Language of Materials

Undetermined .

Biographical Sketch

Lionel Tiger is a renowned anthropologist who has devoted his career to the field by contributing through research, instruction, and publication. He has devoted most of his career to teaching anthropology at Rutgers University and currently holds the title of Charles Darwin Professor Emeritus of Anthropology. Accomplishments include publications printed in multiple languages, consulting positions for the U.S. Government, published articles in many national journals, magazines, and newspapers, and appointments with many notable professional organizations.

Lionel Tiger was born in Montreal in 1937. He received both his Bachelor's Degree and Master's Degree from McGill University and his PhD from the London School of Economics at the University of London. Tiger held his first professorship at University of British Columbia from 1963 to 1969.

Following his position at University of British Columbia, Tiger began his lengthy career at Rutgers University in 1969. Tiger was brought on by fellow friend and professional colleague, Robin Fox, who was responsible for forming the newly established anthropology department. Fox and Tiger were first introduced at the London School of Economics in the early 1960s. Eventually, Fox and Tiger authored the non-fiction work together, The Imperial Animal in 1972. Tiger's career at Rutgers spans over four decades.

Outside of teaching, Tiger's published works include the titles, Men in Groups, The Imperial Animal, and The Decline of Males. Furthermore, Tiger's work has been published in TIME, The New Yorker, The Wall Street Journal, and The New York Times. He also devoted his time to multiple professional organizations and held the appointment as the Treasurer for PEN American Center, and was the Director of Research for the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation from 1972-1984. Other professional accomplishments include a wide array of consultations with the Department of Defense and acting as an expert witness in multiple high profile trials during the 1980s. Award achievements also include the 1999 Humanist Laureate from the International Academy of Humanism and the Cultural Laureate of the Landmarks Preservation Association, New York City.

Biographical / Historical

Chronology of Events

Born in Montreal, Canada.
Receives his BA from McGill University.
Receives his MA from McGill University.
Lecturer, University of Ghana, Accra
Pursues and receives his PhD from London School of Economics at the University of London.
Recipient of Ford Foundation Foreign Area Training Fellowship, Africa
Assistant Professor at University of British Columbia
Appointed position of Associate Professor at Rutgers University
Men in Groups is published and eventually is translated into 6 foreign languages.
The Imperial Animal a collective project with Robin Fox, translated into 9 foreign languages with 2nd and 3rd Edition released in 1989 and 1998 respectively.
Serves as Director of Research for the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, New York.
Professor at Rutgers University
Women in the Kibbutz is published.
Rockefeller Fellow at the Aspen Institute
The Biology of Hope is released, reissued with new Introduction and Forward in 1995.
China's Food book is released with photography by Reinhart Wolf.
Receives Sussman Award for Excellence in Teaching, Rutgers University
Chairman for Board of Social Scientists at US News and World Report
2nd Edition of Men in Groups and The Manufacture of Evil: Evolution, Ethics, and the Industrial System are published.
Awarded the Harry Frank Guggenheim Research Fellowship
Appointed title of Charles Darwin Professor of Anthropology
Editor of new book, Man and Beast Revisited.
1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
Chairman of Working Group on Theories of Military Deterrence and Policy, Director of Net Assessment-Office of the Secretary of Defense, The Pentagon.
The Pursuit of Pleasure is published.
The Decline of Males is released.
Female Hierarchies is published
Tiger's most recent book, God's Brain with Michael McGuire is published.
Tiger retires from teaching at Rutgers University and accepts new title of Charles Darwin Professor Emeritus of Anthropology.
Tiger speaks at the TedxAustin event
Special Collections and University Archives acquires the Lionel Tiger Papers.

Arrangement Note

The Lionel Tiger Papers are divided into eight series as follows:

  4. IV. TEACHING FILES (1963-2009)
  5. V. MEDIA AND PRESS FILES (1964-2011)
  7. VII. CONSULTATION FILES (1985-2009)

Separated Material

Copies of articles and other text pulled from books that were not written by Tiger were eliminated from the collection due to the availability of copies elsewhere, and the availability of resources used in bibliographies. It was also determined that book drafts will be eliminated from the collection due to the absence of dates as it would be impossible to understand the full transition and progression of Tiger's writings. All drafts and notes that are clearly lacking pages have also been removed from the collection. Rosters of students' grades have also been eliminated from the series. Mental health evaluations and interviews of Laura Troiani and John Maier have been eliminated due to sensitive information.

Draft Index

1984 Oops 1999

Abortion is Less About Sex Than Male Irresponsibility And Female Employment

A Call to Babes in Arms?


A Commentary on the Uncommonest Party of Great Britain

All New! Natural Behavior!

A Modish Proposal

Ancient Truths Emerge From The Traumas of Today

Animate Objects

The Apes of New York

A Philosophy for the University

Architecture as a Non-Literature Social Science

A Really Effective Way to Save the World From Total Destruction By Extending the Principle of the Hot Line and Using Little Girls and Grannies

Arts in Canada

Arts of the Raven

Assuming the Role of Being Father

Authors and Critics

The Bad Food Diet-The Sure Fire Answer


The Beginning of Prehistory


The Biggest Museum in the World

Biological Fabianism and Secretary Califano

The Biology of Male Association

Botox Nation

The Brain As Affiliative Organ

CCEL Evaluation Committee Report

Changing Lifestyles…Changing Expectations

Chapter 2: Evolution and History

The Civil Service

Close But Not Close Enough

The Contemporary Setting Formosa, The Beautiful Island

The Control of Pleasure: The Pleasure of Control (Research Plan and Budget) (missing pages, multiple copies)

Critics at Large May 19, 1964

Critics at Large October 20, 1964

The Danger of Finding Something Out-A Comment on Kathleen Nott

Duet With Silent Partner

Durkheim, Sociology, and the Science of Bodies in Conflict

The Effect of the Individual in Society

The Emotional Effects of the Pill

Equality, Similarity, and the Race/Gender Confusion

The Ethical Illiterates With Great Suits Strike Again

Ethology and the Social Sciences

The Evolution of Cultural Norms

Exiles in Your Own Country

Fashion and Evolution


First Political Memory

Food Therapy

For Robert Gersin Associates: A&P Annual Report

Fortune Magazine Article

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Today

Give and Take

Giving the Kids the Dickens

Homo Sentiens Sapiens

How Are You Gonna Keep Them Up In Paree After They've Seen The Farm?

The Human Nature Project

Human Rights Are A Subform of Animal Rights

Industrial Civilization

The Internal Triangle

Lawn Order

Legalization of Prostitution

Leisure: The Release From Imperatives

Lifton and Biology/The Doctor Is In. Knock Twice

The Male Society

Man to Man

Mate Choice and the New Money-Candor

Memo for National Institute For Public Policy

Men Need Men

Moral Quality in Circles for Square Shooters

Music and Language: An Ethnographic Study of the Use of Language in Music Learning and Interpreting Situations

My Mastah Be One Europe Man Who Say Me What Be Fine An Show Me Humbul

My Turn

The New Anti-sexual Chemistry

Nina Simone

The New Traditionalism

Notes on Biology, Psychology, and Incorrect Assumptions of Cultural

One Billion Mammals: Reflections on Food Use in China

Our Present Discontents

Pleasure, the Other Neighborhood

Puttin' on the Sharp

The Opiates Are The Religion of the People

The Other Oil, Unrefined

Re: 2002 Human Dignity Awards

Re: Erving Goffman

Re: Male Associations


The Role of Anthropology in American Industrial Failure

The Second Human Be-In

Sex and Deconstruction Workers

Sex in Uniform

Sexual Equality and Sexual Sameness

Sexual Revolution

Sexually BiZonal: Awkwardly Changing Time Zones

Social Structure and Internal Secretions

Somatic Factors and Social Behaviour

Success and Failure

The Symbolic World Won By Jimmy Carter

Think Locally, Design Magnificently

Three Generations of Women in the Kubbutz

Three Quarters of the Way to the Heart of Darkness

Topic 2: The Roots of Human Behavior

TU Script-June 14, 1979

Untitled (Gender involves relationship between the two sexes…)

Untitled (I am a Canadian…)

Untitled (Imagine a triangle)

Untitled (It had to come-)

Untitled (It is a curse)

Untitled (It is a thrilling…)

Untitled (It is obvious…)

Untitled (Japanese Food)

Untitled (Late This Autumn…)

Untitled (My concern here…)

Untitled (My ultimate reason)

Untitled (The Story of Margaret Mead…)

Untitled (The question…)

Untitled (There can be no aspect of human existence…)

Untitled (The research project…)

Untitled (Twenty-one years…)

Untitled (Two Bronx pitchers…)

Untitled (When we are in it the forest of modern life…)

Untitled (You Are Surrounded By Design…)

The Value of Pleasure

Village Social Control in Ghana

Where Are The Yams? Where Are the Sandals?

Women in Vague

Words Fail Us

The Writer's Job Description

The Xeros Machine

Acquisition and Processing Notes

The Lionel Tiger Papers were accessioned by Special Collections and University Archives between 2011 and 2013. Material was received from Lionel Tiger in 2011 (40 cubic feet). Surveying and processing was started by Adriana Kuzyszyn in September of 2011. Adriana surveyed all contents and created and organized the Correspondence Series. After the correspondence was organized, Adriana sorted through the research and newspaper articles and organized the articles and short manuscripts written by Tiger and omitted ones not written by Tiger from the collection. Additionally, she created a small collection of articles written about Tiger. Finally, Adriana began the separation of notes, proofs, and drafts.

Sarah Brown continued the project in October 2012 and finished organizing what would become the Writing and Manuscripts Files. She then surveyed the remaining nine miscellaneous boxes of material and arranged the collection into eight series, some of which were developed from ideas and planning of Adriana in Spring of 2013. During the Summer and Fall of 2013 she wrote the finding aid and described and re-housed the collection.

Guide to the Lionel Tiger Papers, 1958-2011 R-MC 117
Edited Full Draft
Sarah Brown and Adriana Kuzyszyn
Language of description note
Finding aid is written in English.
Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University received an operating support grant from the New Jersey Historical Commission, a division of the Department of State.

Part of the Rutgers University Archives Repository

Rutgers University Libraries
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
169 College Avenue
New Brunswick NJ 08901-1163
732-932-7012 (Fax)